Structures of Different Types of Touch Screens

Touchscreen is prevalent and is integrated with many devices, machines, and instruments and is applied to various industries nowadays. There are some different types of touchscreens in terms of structure, functions, and performance. But almost all touchscreen devices contain a touch detection component, a digitizer, a liquid-crystal display (LCD) and backlighting. The combination of these components allows a touchscreen device to detect touch commands as well as project images. These elements work together to enable a touchscreen device to detect touch commands and also present visuals.

To detect the user’s touch position and transmit it to the touch screen controller after receiving it, the touch detection component is placed in front of the display screen. The touchscreen digitizer is a component that transforms analog touch signals into digital touch signals. The LCD is an electronic display that uses liquid pixels as its defining feature. LCDs are required for touchscreens to produce images. A touchscreen won’t produce images if it merely has a digitizer and no display. The LCD is often a panel that is positioned behind the digitizer in touchscreen devices. The visuals on the touchscreen are created with the cooperation of the LCD and backlighting. Since LCDs can’t produce their own light, they require a separate lighting system in order to function. In LCD touchscreens, light-emitting diode (LED) backlighting is often employed. LED backlighting has a long lifespan, high energy efficiency, and substantial illumination. To spread the light produced by LEDs more evenly, some LED backlighting also makes use of optical fiber or light guides.

In addition to the common features mentioned above, the main four types of touchscreens in the market differ in some ways in terms of structure.

Projected Capacitive Touchscreen
The capacitive touch screen generally consists of four layers. A protective glass layer serves as the outermost layer, followed by a conductive layer, a non-conductive glass screen, and a fourth, conductive layer, which serves as the innermost layer. It uses a matrix of tiny electrodes under the glass surface. Compared with resistive touchscreens that used individual wires attached to each pixel, capacitive touchscreen offers thinner displays and higher resolution.
Projected capacitive and surface capacitive touchscreens are well-known capacitive touchscreen types. The primary difference between projected capacitive and surface capacitive touchscreens is that the latter uses two layers of electrodes whereas the former uses a single layer of electrodes.

Resistive Touchscreen
Resistive touch screens consist of two conductive layers separated by invisible spacers. The layers are covered with transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings that are both electrically conductive and resistive. The bottom layer is usually made of glass or film and the top layer is mostly made of film.

Resistive touch panels come in two different structural configurations. Whether glass or polycarbonate is utilized as the support material (part of the bottom layer), determines how the constructions are different. Film/Glass is a more typical construction for resistive touch panels. The difference lies in the material of the bottom layer and the accompanying support.

Surface Acoustic Wave Touchscreen
The surface acoustic wave touch screen is made of a single glass sheet that has reflectors, receiving transducers, and transmitting transducers. Ultrasonic waves are produced by transmitting transducers and pass across the panel’s surface. The receiving transducers catch the ultrasonic waves after they have been reflected by the reflectors.
SAW touchscreens have a top layer composed entirely of glass. SAW touchscreens have excellent optical clarity thanks to its top layer made entirely of glass. The glass top layer of a SAW touchscreen allows for more light to enter through.

Infrared Touchscreen
An infrared touch screen is made up of an LCD monitor, an IR touch frame, and an infrared touch overlay. Typically, the overlay is a sheet of protective glass enclosed by an IR touch frame that contains embedded infrared LEDs and photodetectors. To fix the frame and transmit the infrared light emitted by those LEDs, an optical bezel of some sort will be installed between the glass and the frame.

IR LEDs generate invisible infrared beams from the optical bezel, forming grids on the surface of the overlay. Photodetectors are placed to detect interruptions of beams when touch events occur on the screen.

Top One Tech is expertise in providing our customers with projected capacitive touch screens, infrared touch screens, touch monitors and all-in-one touch computers, as well as related customization, production, OEM&ODM services.

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